July 2007

Ottaviano, 31 July 2007, 13100 reads

Since the very beginning of European integration, the role of openness in promoting firm productivity has been recognised by European leaders. Recent evidence on Italian firms supports this view.

Eichengreen, 30 July 2007, 31085 reads

Germany’s traditional specialisation in manufacturing makes China and India direct competitors. What happened to Italy as China moved up the technology ladder will happen to Germany. The key to growth lies in getting out of China’s way and finding alternative forms of high-value-added employment.

Bertocchi, 30 July 2007, 17616 reads

Data from the period 1870-1930 shed light on the economics of women’s political empowerment. They suggest that declining earnings gaps and evolving family culture should foster future extensions of women’s political rights. The constant increase of marital instability, however, may push the other way.

Editors, 28 July 2007, 10186 reads

Vox will only publish articles on weekdays until the end of the summer.

Bagues, Esteve-Volart, 27 July 2007, 23003 reads

Many nations are imposing gender quotas on top-level jobs. Recent research suggests that such policies do not have a positive knock-on effect on gender balance in lower positions.

Aron, Muellbauer, 26 July 2007, 53514 reads

Changes in openness to trade can disrupt the inflation forecasting on which many nations' monetary policies depend. New research suggests an innovative time-series openness measure that addresses some of the shortcomings of existing measures.

Santos, 25 July 2007, 65362 reads

Singapore has had congestion charging since 1975. London introduced one in 2003. Does urban congestion charging make sense?

Verboven, van Dijk, 24 July 2007, 19944 reads

Anti-competitive behaviour raises prices and private enforcement action allows ‘victims’ to recover some of the losses. Calculating the losses is not straightforward since the victims may pass-on some of the higher prices for inputs to their customers who then become indirect victims. The EU should allow adjustment for this passing-on and give legal standing to those indirectly affected.

Burda, 23 July 2007, 44744 reads

Germany has finally gotten aboard the train of labour market, supply-side oriented reforms initiated by Europe’s success stories -- Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, and the UK. Italy and France would do well to follow suit

Editors, 22 July 2007, 7993 reads

The Spanish member of the Consortium has started publishing.

Wyplosz, 21 July 2007, 31447 reads

The ECB’s opacity, lack of open debate and refusal to decide by voting bear at least some responsibility in the declining support for the euro. This makes the ECB an easy target for politicians looking for scapegoats. For the good of the Euro-area citizens, the ECB ought to change its ways.

Albanesi, Olivetti, 20 July 2007, 28725 reads

Medical advances in the early part of the twentieth century, especially those concerning child-bearing, increased the fraction of women’s lives that could be devoted to the labour market. They account for the threefold increase in the labour force participation of married women with children between 1920 and 1970 in the US.

Edmonds, Pavcnik, 19 July 2007, 54618 reads

Why are children working? Eliminating trade-linked jobs does not change the circumstances that cause children to work. Empirically, children are less likely to work in countries with more international trade.

Kee, Nicita, Olarreaga, 18 July 2007, 20468 reads

Trade openness matters, so the measurement of trade restrictiveness matters. Commonly used measures, however, are deeply flawed. New research, using theory-based measures, has generated two new global databases on the restrictiveness of trade policy at the most disaggregated level.

Bertocchi, 15 July 2007, 30495 reads

Inheritance tax revenues have long been declining in all OECD countries, both in terms of total revenues and GDP. This trend is explained by the secular decline of wealth inequality, and is also influenced by differential rates of tax avoidance and by the evolving composition of wealth.

Vigdor, 14 July 2007, 12730 reads

Should governments help residents of depressed regions move towards more prosperous areas? Evidence from Katrina evacuees suggests that such efforts are likely to fail. The fortunes of long-term evacuees are almost completely unrelated to the characteristics of the cities to which they relocated.

Amiti, Romalis, 13 July 2007, 27360 reads

Some worry that developing countries don’t have much to gain under the Doha Round because they will lose their preference margins. In fact, such preferences are not as generous as they appear. Our estimates suggest that across-the-board tariff cuts give greater market access to many developing countries.

Bloom, Sadun, Van Reenen, 12 July 2007, 41383 reads

US firms typically have better management practices than their European counterparts. This ‘management gap’ has a direct impact on productivity differences. Policies on competition, labour market flexibility and education are key to closing the gap.

Saint-Paul, 11 July 2007, 9238 reads

Most of the justifications for politically popular Employment Protection Legislation (EPL) ring hollow. Governments ought to tackle adverse selection, risk aversion, and unequal bargaining power issues with more finely tuned tools.

Aldashev, 10 July 2007, 39096 reads

Governments channel increasingly large amounts of development aid through NGOs and attempt to control them with policies such as matching grants, tax deductions, and tying grants to past performance. Such instruments may induce competition, but competition between NGOs is a double-edged sword.

Bhagwati, Panagariya, 09 July 2007, 15931 reads

The US is to blame for the recent breakdown of the WTO negotiations. The US could get the talks back on track by switching its agricultural support to direct, non-trade-distorting income support for farmers.

Boeri, 08 July 2007, 19162 reads

Empirically, wages have declined for unskilled labour in rich countries. This should be addressed and trade may play a role, but protectionist trade policies are not the answer. More imaginative thinking is required.

Wolf, Schulze, 07 July 2007, 50385 reads

Recent estimates of Habsburg Empire trade suggest that borders matter as long as ethno-linguistic networks matter. The EU needs to find a new deal on language policy, if it is to achieve a truly common market.

Cecchetti, 07 July 2007, 42272 reads

Technology will force private health insurance to disappear; social pressure to provide equal access to care will remain. The inevitable result will be that health care systems everywhere will provide universal coverage and be publicly run.

Pisani-Ferry, 06 July 2007, 29592 reads

When the IMF was a monitor of borrowers’ policies, dominance of the IMF Board by creditor countries was natural, but an institution whose main role is to facilitate global consultations and arbitrate currency disputes needs a more balanced shareholder structure.

Besley, Kudamatsu, 05 July 2007, 61833 reads

Autocracies are bad, but are sometimes economically successful. Empirical analysis provides lessons on how to institutionalise good government in a wider context.

Boeri, Garibaldi, 04 July 2007, 16924 reads

The Italian government has approved a short-sighted economic and financial planning document, which is politically expedient but not in the interests of the country.

Baldwin, 04 July 2007, 42417 reads

Recent advances in economics have opened a gap between research and real-world applications. This essay – written for LaVoce’s 5th anniversary – discusses how sites like LaVoce are bridging the research-reality gap.

Martin, Mayer, Thoenig, 04 July 2007, 59469 reads

Using a large dataset of military conflicts, trade created by regional trade agreements is shown to be pacifying, but greater overall openness has the opposite effect. Logically, this means that bilateral trade pacifies bilateral relations, but raises the chance of conflict with third countries.

Hatton, 03 July 2007, 48768 reads

Like other developed regions, the EU has a far higher share of skilled workers in its labour force than does the world as a whole. That suggests that Europe should be tilting its immigration policies towards the unskilled. So why are we seeing a trend in the opposite direction?

De Grauwe, 02 July 2007, 53460 reads

EU rigidities are well known, but low US energy productivity and low social mobility (probability of the poor breaking out of poverty) are less often noted. Structural reforms are necessary if the US is to emulate European successes on social mobility and energy efficiency.

Ubide, 01 July 2007, 12792 reads

After the 1997 crisis, Asia embarked on gradual and prudent reforms that are yielding considerable benefits for the region and the world. Further reform in Asia is needed, but we should allow Asia to continue gradually and prudently.

Events