Gender

Thomas Baudin, David de la Croix, Paula E. Gobbi, 25 July 2017

The fertility of women in developing countries is higher on average than in developed countries, yet many women in developing countries remain childless. This column argues that understanding the causes of why some women choose childlessness is important if we wish to predict the impact that development policies have on the demographic transition of poor countries.

Hiromi Hara, 19 July 2017

Although the gender wage gap in Japan has been decreasing over the last 15 years, it remains large. This column shows that both the ‘glass ceiling’ and the ‘sticky floor’ exist in the Japanese labour market. The country’s human resource management system and a culture which rewards those who are willing to work outside of regular hours are to blame.

Claudia Olivetti, Barbara Petrongolo, 03 June 2017

Family-oriented policies – such as parental leave, childcare support, and flexible work arrangements – are in place in all high-income countries, as well as several developing countries. This column assesses the labour market impacts of these policies, based on a review of the literature and data on 30 OECD countries over 45 years. While there is no clear consensus, a general theme is that policies that make it easier to be a working mother, such as subsidised childcare, seem to have better labour market outcomes than extending parental leave.

Ejaz Ghani, Arti Grover Goswami, Sari Pekkala Kerr, William Kerr, 06 May 2017

Developing countries around the world are implementing structural reforms and pro-competitive policies to promote growth, but the impact of this on gender equity is unclear. This column examines the case of India, one of the world’s fastest growing countries, and finds that gender equality has not improved. Policymakers must do more to eliminate gender discrimination. They have an opportunity to not only improve the allocative efficiency of factors and increase growth, but also create an environment of equal opportunity for all, by targeting domestic market competition. 

Joan Costa-i-Font, Sarah Fleche, 01 May 2017

The number of hours the average person sleeps has declined over the past century, yet the effect of sleep deprivation on economic activity and economic performance has received little attention. Using a dataset covering 14,000 families, this column investigates the link between employment outcomes for mothers and quality of sleep, measured by the number of times their children wake up at night. The results suggest that improving mothers’ average nightly duration of sleep has a positive impact on employment rates, number of hours worked, household income, and job satisfaction.

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