Macroeconomic policy

Giancarlo Corsetti, Gernot Müller, Keith Kuester, 16 September 2017

The classic rationale for flexible exchange rates was that policymakers would be unconstrained by currency targets. The Great Recession, however, saw numerous central banks constrained instead by the zero lower bound. This column considers which exchange rate regime is best for small open economies in a global recession. The model suggests that if the source of the shock is abroad and foreign interest rates become constrained at their zero lower bound, then flexible exchange rates do provide a great deal of insulation to the domestic economy.

Roel Beetsma, Oana Furtuna, Massimo Giuliodori, 05 September 2017

Research has shown that planned fiscal consolidations have been less recessionary when carried out through public spending cuts rather than through increases in government revenues. This column argues that this may be at least partly due to differences in follow-up for the two consolidation strategies. Better follow-up of announced spending contractions may result in negative Keynesian responses similar to those that follow announced revenue increases, and so they may not necessarily provide a 'cheaper' route to budgetary consolidation than revenue increases.

Ricardo Caballero, Alp Simsek, 30 August 2017

Interest rates continue to decline across the globe, while returns to capital remain constant or increasing. The reasons for this widening risky-safe gap are wide-ranging. This column illustrates the secular rise of risk intolerance in the global economy, and summarises a new macroeconomic framework suitable for this environment. It uses this framework to discuss the current global macroeconomic context, its underlying fragility, and the coexistence of low equilibrium interest rates and high speculation.

Refet Gürkaynak, Philippe Weil, 24 August 2017

This column presents the first bi-annual report from CEPR’s Euro Area Business Cycle Dating Committee on the state of the Eurozone business cycle. The main findings are that the Eurozone expansion is continuing slowly, but is creating employment at a rapid pace; the recovery is commensurate with the US recovery once the Eurozone’s double-dip sovereign debt recession is factored in; and the heterogeneity in the pace of recovery of individual member countries is driven by the heterogeneity in their recessions.

Olivier Coibion, Yuriy Gorodnichenko, Mauricio Ulate, 24 August 2017

Estimates of potential output around the world have been systematically revised downward since the Great Recession. This column argues that the methods used to create these estimates do not distinguish between transitory and permanent shocks, or demand and supply shocks. Taking these differences into account suggests US output is almost 10 percentage points below potential output. This has important immediate implications for policymakers, and raises questions for those who estimate potential output.

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