Monetary policy

Michael Bordo, Andrew Levin, 23 September 2017

Central banks across the world are considering sovereign digital currencies. This column argues that these currencies could transform all aspects of the monetary system and facilitate the systematic and transparent conduct of monetary policy. In particular, a central bank digital currency can serve as a practically costless medium of exchange, a secure store of value, and a stable unit of account. To achieve this, the currency would be account based and interest bearing, and the monetary policy framework would target true price stability.

Alex Haberis, Richard Harrison, Matt Waldron, 21 September 2017

In New Keynesian models, a promise to hold interest rates lower in the future has powerful effects on economic activity and inflation today. This result relies on a strong link between expected future policy rates and current activity, and also a belief that the policymaker will make good on the promise. This column argues that a tension between both of these creates a paradox – the stronger the expectations channel, the less likely it is that people will believe the promise in the first place. As a result, forward guidance promises are much less powerful than standard analysis suggests.

Mojmir Hampl, Tomas Havranek, 12 September 2017

Seven out of every ten Europeans live in their own homes, yet Europe’s most important inflation measure excludes the costs associated with owner-occupied housing. This column argues that including the costs of home ownership would prove beneficial to the conduct of monetary and macroprudential policy. It would also bring the measure closer to what most people consider inflation to be.

Yusuf Soner Baskaya, Julian di Giovanni, Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan, Mehmet Fatih Ulu, 01 September 2017

Most models assume capital flows are endogenous to the business cycle, and that inflows increase during an economy’s ‘boom’ periods. This column shows that the international no-arbitrage condition in fact does not hold, and that capital flows are pushed into an economy due to high global risk appetite. Controlling for domestic monetary policy responses to capital flows and changes in the exchange rate, exogenous capital inflows lower real borrowing costs and fuel credit expansion.

Wim Boonstra, 25 August 2017

Measured in dollars, the US is by far the most indebted country in the world. As this column describes, however, the country still has a positive capital income in spite of its high net debt position, and its external debt position is much smaller than one would expect based on cumulated current account deficits. Furthermore, fluctuations in the dollar exchange rates have a strong direct effect on the country’s international investment position. As long as it can finance its external obligations in dollars, its international debt position is no cause for concern for the US. For the rest of the world, however, the story may be different.

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