Paul De Grauwe, Yuemei Ji, 01 November 2017

Dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models are still dominant in mainstream macroeconomics, but they are only able to explain business cycle fluctuations as the result of exogenous shocks. This column uses concepts from behavioural economics to develop macroeconomic models with endogenous business cycle fluctuations. Application of the models highlights how the trade-off between output and inflation is moderated by the flexibility of the economy. The models further help to explain the international transmission of business cycle fluctuations.

Roger Farmer, Konstantin Platonov, 02 September 2016

The concept of 'secular stagnation' asserts that unemployment remains high and output below potential because investors are pessimistic. This column presents a way to rethink the IS-LM model to include investor expectations. This 'IS-LM-NAC' model explains the slow recovery from the Great Recession, provides a theory-consistent explanation for secular stagnation, and suggests policy options to escape it.

Yasuyuki Todo, 07 June 2012

How do firms go international? This column reviews evidence from industrialised and emerging economies, including Japan and China, with some surprising findings.

Roger Farmer, 08 November 2010

CEPR Discussion Paper 8100 re-examines the ability of old-Keynesian and new-Keynesian models to cope with persistence of unemployment. The author argues the an import input of persistent unemployment is the "animal spirits" of the unemployed. He tests an old-Keynesian model in which the Phillips curve is replaced by a belief function and finds it a better fit for the data than new-Keynesian variants.

Paul De Grauwe, 19 November 2009

The extraordinary assumptions of macroeconomic models have left the outside world perplexed about what economists have been doing during the last few decades. This column contrasts the incongruous rational expectations top-down model with a bottom-up model where no individual is capable of understanding the full complexity of a market system. The bottom-up model creates correlations in beliefs that generate waves of optimism and pessimism. The latter produce endogenous business cycles akin to the Keynesian “animal spirits”.

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