Gregory Casey, Oded Galor, 23 March 2017

Most policies that target climate change – such as carbon taxes and cap-and-trade programmes – have long-term benefits but short-term economic costs. This column argues that population policies may not be subject to this trade-off. In particular, policies that reduce population growth can have a direct positive effect on income per capita as well as lowering growth of carbon emissions. Such policies could play an important role in the portfolio of actions aimed at mitigating climate change.

David Cuberes, 01 December 2010

How do cities develop and grow? This column presents historical data from a large number of cities in several countries. It finds that there are a few cities that grow much faster than the rest; the first cities to grow quickly are the largest; and this pattern of sequential city growth is more pronounced in periods of rapid growth in urban population.

Kazuhiro Kumo, 02 June 2010

Before the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia's total fertility rate was 2.01. By 1999 it was below 1.20, before rising closer to 1.5 in 2007. This column uses micro-data analysis to examine what factors have driven this change. It supports the evidence from other countries that fertility is not solely determined by short-term factors such as rising incomes, the economic climate, or government initiatives.

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