Drug quality and global trade

Amir Attaran, Roger Bate, Ginger Zhe Jin, Aparna Mathur 09 October 2014

a

A

Data from the Pharmaceutical Security Institute indicate that poor-quality medicines were found in 124 countries in 2011, with the problem more severe in low- and mid-income countries than in developed countries (IOM 2013). While much attention has been focused on intellectual property rights protection (notably issues surrounding the WTO’s TRIPS1 agreement), poor-quality samples were more prevalent in cheap, generic drugs than in expensive, innovator-branded drugs when we tested drug samples from 18 low-to-mid-income countries (Bate et al. 2011).

a

A

Topics:  Health economics International trade

Tags:  pharmaceuticals, drugs, medicine, health, trade, drug quality, India, Africa, counterfeiting, regulation, market segmentation

Three new leaders face the challenge of food and fuel subsidies: Sisi, Modi, and Jokowi

Jeffrey Frankel 09 September 2014

a

A

In few policy areas does good economics conflict so dramatically with good politics as in the practice of subsidies to food and energy. Economics textbooks explain that these subsidies are lose-lose policies. In the political world, that can sound like an ivory tower abstraction. But the issue of unaffordable subsidies happens to be front and centre politically this summer, in a number of places around the world. Three major new leaders in particular are facing this challenge: Sisi in Egypt, Jokowi in Indonesia, and Modi in India.

a

A

Topics:  Development Energy Politics and economics Poverty and income inequality

Tags:  subsidies, fuel subsidies, food subsidies, Agriculture, energy, Egypt, Indonesia, India, Poverty, environment, trade, WTO, Doha Round, Bali

African growth looking forward

Marco Annunziata 16 August 2014

a

A

Views on Africa’s growth prospects have jumped from utter pessimism to extreme enthusiasm. The latter has been centre-stage with the US–Africa Summit hosted in Washington DC from 4–6 August 2014, with the participation of top political and business leaders. My coauthors Todd Johnson and Shlomi Kramer and I have tried to take a sober assessment of Africa’s progress and prospects, looking beyond the current hype and the inevitable frustration that doing business in the region still generates (Annunziata et al. 2014).

a

A

Topics:  Development

Tags:  development, growth, Africa, human capital, trade, innovation, infrastructure, commodity boom

Why the US and EU are failing to set information free

Susan Ariel Aaronson 14 July 2014

a

A

Tim Berners-Lee, the architect of the World Wide Web, taught us that the internet we have is a function of the choices we (users, companies, policymakers, etc.) make about information flows. For example, in 1995, Berners-Lee chose not to patent his work on the World Wide Web because he feared patenting it could limit its universality and openness. He continues to advocate this. In March 2014, he called for an online bill of rights and created a new organisation to ensure that the web would remain the “web we want” – open, free, and neutral.

a

A

Topics:  EU policies Global governance International trade

Tags:  US, EU, WTO, information technology, trade, technology, internet, Human rights, national security, Information, free trade agreements, data protection, privacy

Sourcing foreign inputs to improve firm performance

Maria Bas, Vanessa Strauss-Kahn 14 July 2014

a

A

Should trade policy fight or promote imports of intermediate inputs? While several studies have shown the recent increase in imports of intermediate goods, their role in shaping domestic economies is not yet completely understood. Following the work of Feenstra and Hanson (1996), a large literature focuses on the impact of imported intermediate inputs on employment and inequality. It concludes that, like outsourcing, imported intermediate inputs have a role (although limited) in explaining job losses and wage reductions.

a

A

Topics:  International trade

Tags:  employment, productivity, wages, Inequality, trade, exports, outsourcing, imports, global value chains, Intermediate inputs

Connecting Brazil to the world

Patricia Ellen, Jaana Remes 12 July 2014

a

A

Despite a decade of rapid growth and falling poverty rates, Brazil has failed to match the global average for income growth – let alone to achieve the kind of impressive gains posted by other rapidly transforming emerging economies. As of 2012, Brazil had become the world’s seventh-largest economy, but it ranked only 95th in the world for gross national income per capita (IHS Economics and Country Risk data). To raise household living standards, Brazil needs to find a new formula for accelerating productivity growth.

a

A

Topics:  Development International trade Productivity and Innovation

Tags:  development, growth, productivity, globalisation, MERCOSUR, trade, openness, Brazil, global value chains

Mega-regionals and the mega-mess: A way out

Jayant Menon 09 June 2014

a

A

Jagdish Bhagwati (1991) famously described the maze of overlapping free trade agreements (FTAs) as akin to a ‘spaghetti bowl’. Several decades later, with the rise of mega-regionals like the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the fragmentation of the world trade system more closely resembles a jigsaw puzzle. How do we solve this mess? One approach being pursued is to consolidate bilateral FTAs into regional blocs, and then to try and link the blocs up globally – or at least hope that they will eventually.

a

A

Topics:  Global governance International trade

Tags:  WTO, trade liberalisation, trade, reciprocity, free trade agreements, Trans-Pacific Partnership, multilateralisation of preferences, mega-regionals, Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

Migrant networks and trade: The Vietnamese boat people as a natural experiment

Christopher Parsons, Pierre-Louis Vézina 23 May 2014

a

A

Immigrants potentially foster international trade by reducing trade costs. Such frictions are quantitatively large, especially for poor countries (Anderson and van Wincoop 2004), and recent research has singled out information costs in particular as inhibiting trade flows (Chaney 2011, Allen 2012, Steinwender 2013). Immigrants may lower such frictions through their knowledge of their home country's language, regulations, market opportunities, and informal institutions.

a

A

Topics:  International trade Migration

Tags:  trade, migrant networks, Vietnam, US exports

Gross trade accounting: A transparent method to discover global value chain-related information behind official trade data: Part 2

Zhi Wang, Shang-Jin Wei, Kunfu Zhu 16 April 2014

a

A

Analytical background

a

A

Topics:  International trade

Tags:  competitiveness, globalisation, trade, comparative advantage, global value chains, global supply chain, statistics

Gross trade accounting: A transparent method to discover global value chain-related information behind official trade data: Part 1

Zhi Wang, Shang-Jin Wei, Kunfu Zhu 07 April 2014

a

A

Production segmentation across national borders has become an important feature of the world economy. With the rapid increase in intermediate trade flows, trade economists and policymakers have reached a near consensus that official trade statistics based on gross terms are deficient, often hiding the extent of global value chains. There is also widespread recognition among the official international statistics agencies that fragmentation of global production requires a new approach to measure trade, in particular the need to measure trade in value-added.

a

A

Topics:  International trade

Tags:  globalisation, trade, global value chains, global supply chain, statistics

Pages