Pamela Campa, Lucija Muehlenbachs, 22 July 2021

Every year in the US around 5,000 cases are brought against defendants for violating federal environmental statutes, with defendants given the opportunity to volunteer ‘Supplemental Environmental Projects’ in lieu of a cash penalty. This column uses the history of US federal environmental cases between 1997 and 2017 to examine the implications of such in-kind settlements for firms and communities. The findings suggest that on economic grounds, the use of Supplemental Environmental Projects is beneficial and worth continuing and that, as recommended by the OECD, environmental agencies worldwide could fruitfully use in-kind settlements.

Ashish Arora, Andrea Fosfuri, Thomas Rønde, 10 July 2012

Over the last decade, companies have paid greater attention to the management of their intellectual assets. We build a model that helps understand how licensing activity should be organized within large corporations.

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