Alvaro Espitia, Aaditya Mattoo, Nadia Rocha, Michele Ruta, Deborah Winkler, 18 January 2021

As COVID-19 spread across countries, many saw global value chains as transmitters of shocks. Using disaggregated export data for multiple countries, this column shows that participation in global value chains increased exporters’ vulnerability to foreign shocks, but it also reduced vulnerability to domestic shocks. Sourcing inputs from abroad is an example of beneficial diversification through trade when domestic production is disrupted. This evidence corroborates the view that nationalising value chains is not the way to improve resilience. 

David Martínez Turégano, Robert Marschinski, 11 August 2020

The EU’s falling share in global manufacturing has fuelled concerns about an overall loss of competitiveness. However, sectoral idiosyncrasies are strong and advise against a ‘one-size-fits-all’ policy intervention. This column uses the World Input-Output Tables to decompose the value added for manufacturing value chains and study the drivers of EU’s relative decline. Competitiveness concerns are most warranted for electronics, a key sector for productivity and innovation. The EU’s global share in electronics has fallen even more than in total manufacturing, without evidence that specialisation in other segments of this value chain could significantly mitigate the trend.

Yuqing Xing, 11 November 2019

In order to pursue ‘fair trade’, the Trump administration has imposed a punitive 25% tariff on $250 billion’s worth of Chinese goods. However, conventional trade statistics greatly exaggerate the US trade deficit with China. This column uses the iPhone as an example to demonstrate how the trade deficit is inflated and why value-added should be used to assess the bilateral trade balance. If multinational enterprises, including Apple, shift part of their value chains out of China, China may no longer play a central role in global value chains targeting the US market. Depreciation of the yuan will be insufficient to counter the effect. 

Chang Sun, Zhigang Tao, Hongjie Yuan, Hongyong Zhang, 03 November 2019

The trade war between the US and China has had impacts on other countries – including Japan, one of the most important trading partners of both countries. The column uses quarterly sales data and stock market returns to show that the operations in China of Japanese MNCs have been negatively affected by the trade war, especially when Chinese affiliates rely heavily on trade with North America. This has led to a reduction in their stock prices. 

Jan Hagemejer, Jakub Mućk, 29 May 2019

Fragmentation of production has made it difficult to assess the contribution of exports to economic growth. This column decomposes growth into value added absorbed at home and that exported. Empirical results show that economic growth in Central and East European countries after 1995 was mainly driven by exports. The pace of convergence in Europe for exported value added was around four times faster than for domestic value added.

Lawrence Edwards, 22 March 2017

There is a concern that international competition hurts local firms. Lawrence Edwards presents his findings on the relationship between intermediate inputs and productivity. This video was recorded at the UNU-WIDER Conference in Pretoria in December 2016.

Kozo Kiyota, Keita Oikawa, Katsuhiro Yoshioka, 09 October 2016

The international competitiveness of industries has received much scholarly attention, but this research has tended to focus on Europe and North America. This column examines the competitiveness of industries in six Asian countries. Global value chain income is increasing in China, India, and Indonesia. And unlike workers in EU countries, workers in the Asian countries have benefited from this increased competitiveness.

Richard Baldwin, 20 January 2014

The global value chain revolution has changed trade and trade agreements. Trade now matters for making goods as well as selling them. Trade governance has shifted away from the WTO towards megaregional agreements. This column argues that 21st-century regionalism is not fundamentally about discrimination, and that its benefits and costs are best thought of as network externalities and harmonisation costs respectively. More research is needed to determine how the megaregional trade agreements across the Pacific and Atlantic will fit with the WTO.

Sergi Basco, Martí Mestieri, 05 October 2013

The ICT revolution has fostered internationalisation of production networks, but the impact has been uneven across sectors. This column presents evidence that ICT interacts with monitoring difficulties to explain differences in international firm organisation at the sector level. ICT is one way that developing nations can ascend in the global supply chain. Those countries that invest in ICT technologies gain a comparative advantage in harder-to-monitor industries, which tend to be more skill-intensive.

Kalina Manova, Zhihong Yu, 13 May 2013

What can we learn from China’s experience as a linchpin in the global value chain? This column presents new research showing that financial frictions influence the organisation of production across firm and country boundaries. If you’re credit-constrained, you might be stuck in the low value-added stage of the supply chain. Strengthening capital markets might thus be an important prerequisite for moving into higher value-added, more profitable activity. China’s experience tells us that liquidity-constrained manufacturers might therefore benefit more from import liberalisation and from the fragmentation of production across borders.

CEPR Policy Research