Gender

Fabio Cerina, Alessio Moro, Michelle Rendall, 30 May 2018

The polarisation of employment by skill level is a phenomenon that has emerged in several industrialised economies in the last decades. This column argues that a substantial fraction of the phenomenon in the US is due to women’s increasing participation in the labour market during a period of sustained skill-biased technological change.

Hamish Low, Costas Meghir, Luigi Pistaferri, Alessandra Voena, 13 May 2018

Changing the terms and rules governing welfare can have substantial effects on employment. This column explores how the imposition of time limits for welfare receipt affected the employment, marriage, and divorce rates of women in the US. As intended by the reform, time limits decreased welfare use and the divorce rate, while increasing employment. Despite this, those women who were worst off prior to the reform are found to be even worse off after it.

Marco Francesconi, Matthias Parey, 07 April 2018

Women earning substantially less than men in all advanced economies, despite the considerable progress women have made in labour markets worldwide. This column explores the recent experience of university graduates in Germany soon after their graduation. Men and women enter college in roughly equal numbers, but more women complete their degrees. Women enter university with slightly better high school grades but leave with slightly lower marks. Immediately after university completion, male and female full-timers work very similar number of hours, but men earn more across the pay distribution. The single most important proximate factor that explains the gap is field of study at university.

Ramiro Gálvez, Valeria Tiffenberg, Edgar Altszyler, 01 April 2018

The belief that men possess greater cognitive abilities than women is a longstanding and well-documented stereotype, with studies showing that both boys and girls as young as six can view ‘brilliance’ as a predominantly male trait. This column explores the contribution of the film industry in the West to perpetuating this stereotype. An analysis of over 10,000 film transcripts reveals the persistent presence of the ‘brilliance = male’ stereotype over the past half a century, including in movies specifically aimed at children.

Vera Rocha, Mirjam van Praag, 10 March 2018

Women are substantially underrepresented in the areas of new venture creation and entrepreneurship. Using Danish data, this column examines an important social interaction that has been relatively overlooked as a possible influence on entrepreneurship choices – the relationship between bosses and employees in start-up firms. Working for a female founder has a strong positive effect on female employees’ likelihood of going on to found their own venture, pointing to the benefits of improving representation at the top.

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