Sharmin Sazedj, José Tavares, 16 July 2022

The gender pay gap is well-documented, yet its source remains debated. This column uses data from Portuguese firms to analyse the role of professional networks in explaining the gender pay gap among top executives. The component of the pay gap which is unexplained by age, tenure, or education has remained persistently large over the period 1986 to 2017, reflecting a gender bias which can be partly explained by networks. Both female and male managers benefit most from connections to managers of their own gender. This implies positive spillovers from policies that favour increased female presence in leadership positions.

Philip Verwimp, 04 July 2022

Since February, more than six million Ukrainians have left their country and as many have been internally displaced. As the Ukrainian army is an overwhelmingly male institution, the war has led to the separation of many men from their spouses and children. This column argues that this factor may have unintended, long-term consequences for the welfare of Ukrainian households. It warns that a protracted war creates risks of intra-household conflict and higher divorce rates among these transnational household units. 

Yukiko Asai, Dmitri Koustas, 23 June 2022

Little is known about the effects of being a temporary contract holder on young workers’ subsequent labour market and family outcomes. This column provides insight into this question by studying a unique set of natural experiments in the Japanese airline industry, which changed the nature of the contract for flight attendants in the mid-1990s and then again in the mid-2010s. The authors find that workers starting on temporary contracts were less likely to remain with the firm over time and were significantly less likely to have children within ten years of starting the job. 

Yener Altunbaş, Leonardo Gambacorta, Alessio Reghezza, Giulio Velliscig, 16 June 2022

Given the scale of climate risks, achieving carbon neutrality by 2050 represents an urgent priority. This column examines the link between female managers in a firm and corporate carbon emissions. It finds that after the Paris Agreement in December 2015, firms with more women involved in the decision-making process reduced carbon dioxide emissions more than firms with a predominance of male managers. The finding suggests that gender diversity within organisations can have a significant impact on combating climate change.

David de la Croix, Mara Vitale, 15 June 2022

Academia has seen remarkable progress in gender equality over the last 50 years, but has yet to achieve parity – particularly in economics and STEM disciplines. This column documents the participation of women in European academia from the first universities to the eve of the Industrial Revolution, with unexpected results. Of the 108 women who taught at universities or belonged to academies, most were in Catholic southern Europe, challenging the idea that Protestantism was more liberal than Catholicism, at least where the participation of women in upper-tail human capital was concerned.

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