Gender

Selahattin İmrohoroğlu, Sagiri Kitao, Tomoaki Yamada, 07 June 2019

Japan leads the advanced economies in the speed and magnitude of demographic ageing and has the highest debt-to-output ratio. Rising social insurance expenditures are projected to far outpace revenues and to create a fiscal burden. This column presents sobering projections for Japanese government debt in the absence of reform, but argues that a combination of policies, including policies to encourage greater labour participation by women and to enhance productivity, could achieve sustainability.

Sascha O. Becker, Ana Fernandes, Doris Weichselbaumer, 05 June 2019

The arrival of a child affects women and men differently in terms of labour market outcomes, but it is difficult to separate out the causal impact of discrimination from other factors. This column uses empirical evidence from Germany, Switzerland, and Austria to show that women are most affected in part-time job applications if they signal a ‘risk’ of having young children soon.

Camille Landais, 24 May 2019

Women earn less than men after they start a family. Can better policies close the gap? Camille Landais of LSE tells Tim Phillips about new research comparing six countries. 

Lakshmi Iyer, 24 May 2019

In India’s recently concluded 2019 national elections, under 10% of the candidates were women. This column examines the potential reasons behind this, and argues that improving women’s knowledge, self-confidence, voice, and mobility could have significant effects on their political participation. It finds no evidence of a role model effect whereby women winning in elections encourages future women candidates, however, and the evidence on whether quotas can improve future women’s political participation is inconclusive.

Henrik Kleven, Camille Landais, Johanna Posch, Andreas Steinhauer, Josef Zweimüller, 14 May 2019

Despite considerable convergence over time, substantial gender inequality persists in all countries. This column examines the labour market consequences of having children for women and men in six developed countries that span a wide range of policies and norms. The analysis reveals some striking similarities across countries, but also sharp differences in the magnitude of the effects. It goes on to discuss the potential role of family policies and gender norms in explaining the cross-country evidence.

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