Gender

Yukiko Asai, Dmitri Koustas, 23 June 2022

Little is known about the effects of being a temporary contract holder on young workers’ subsequent labour market and family outcomes. This column provides insight into this question by studying a unique set of natural experiments in the Japanese airline industry, which changed the nature of the contract for flight attendants in the mid-1990s and then again in the mid-2010s. The authors find that workers starting on temporary contracts were less likely to remain with the firm over time and were significantly less likely to have children within ten years of starting the job. 

Yener Altunbaş, Leonardo Gambacorta, Alessio Reghezza, Giulio Velliscig, 16 June 2022

Given the scale of climate risks, achieving carbon neutrality by 2050 represents an urgent priority. This column examines the link between female managers in a firm and corporate carbon emissions. It finds that after the Paris Agreement in December 2015, firms with more women involved in the decision-making process reduced carbon dioxide emissions more than firms with a predominance of male managers. The finding suggests that gender diversity within organisations can have a significant impact on combating climate change.

David de la Croix, Mara Vitale, 15 June 2022

Academia has seen remarkable progress in gender equality over the last 50 years, but has yet to achieve parity – particularly in economics and STEM disciplines. This column documents the participation of women in European academia from the first universities to the eve of the Industrial Revolution, with unexpected results. Of the 108 women who taught at universities or belonged to academies, most were in Catholic southern Europe, challenging the idea that Protestantism was more liberal than Catholicism, at least where the participation of women in upper-tail human capital was concerned.

Matthias Doepke, Anne Hannusch, Fabian Kindermann, Michèle Tertilt, 11 June 2022

As fertility rates have declined in high-income countries, the cross-country relationship between women’s labour supply and fertility has reversed. Today, in countries where more women are working, more babies are born. This column suggests that classic models of fertility no longer explain ultra-low fertility rates in high-income countries, where the compatibility of women’s career and family goals are now a key driver of fertility decisions. The authors highlight four factors that facilitate combining a career and childbirth: family policy, cooperative fathers, favourable social norms, and flexible labour markets.

Sarah Smith, 10 June 2022

We know women are under-represented in economics. But if male economists are more comfortable expressing a strong opinion, does this increase the perceived imbalance? Sarah Smith tells Tim Phillips about new research into the difference between male and female voices in economics.

Learn more about the research behind this Vox Talk and download the free DP:
Sievertsen, H and Smith, S. 2022. 'Male and female voices in economics'. CEPR

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