Francesco Fasani, Jacopo Mazza, 25 January 2021

The spread of COVID-19 has had dire consequences for the earnings and employment of workers in Europe. As in most recessions, immigrants are among the most vulnerable workers. This column proposes a measure of employment risk based on workers’ job attributes which sidesteps the lack of an up-to-date European labour force survey, and estimates that the pandemic-induced recession puts 9 million immigrant workers at high risk of unemployment in Europe.

Lukas Kleine-Rueschkamp, Cem Özgüzel, 09 December 2020

Workers in essential services have been crucial during COVID-induced lockdowns. This column assesses the contribution of migrants to ‘key worker’ occupations across regions in 31 European countries. Based on individual-level data on occupations from the EU labour force survey and the European Commission’s definition of key workers, it shows that migrants are as likely to support regional economies in key worker occupations as native-born workers are. However, within countries, large differences exist across regions and between cities and rural areas. Overall, migrants play an especially important role in low-skilled key occupations and in cities. At the same time, they also provide a vital source of labour supply in skilled jobs critical for European healthcare systems, such as doctors and nurses.

Ahmed Mushfiq Mobarak, 31 May 2019

In this Yale Insights animation, Mushfiq Mobarak summarises six observations from economic research about how immigration creates economic benefits.

CEPR Policy Research