Alvaro Calderon, Vasiliki Fouka, Marco Tabellini, 20 July 2021

More than 4 million African Americans moved from the South to the North of the United States during the Second Great Migration between 1940 and 1970. This column argues that the Great Migration and support for civil rights are causally linked. It finds that Black in-migration increased demand for racial equality and encouraged pro-civil rights activism in non-Southern counties. These effects were not only driven by Black voters, but also by progressive segments of the white population, who became aware of the brutal conditions prevailing in the South. Mirroring the changes in the electorate, non-Southern Congress members became more likely to promote civil rights legislation, but also grew increasingly polarised along party lines on racial issues.

Owen Thompson, 01 November 2019

Fertility rates among African American women have exceeded those of white women for as long as fertility statistics have been collected, while disparities in the economic outcomes of black and white Americans have persisted. This column investigates the relationship between racial inequality and fertility differentials. It finds that not only were fertility choices responsive to changes in discriminatory policies made during the Civil Rights era, but that African Americans born in the years immediately following, when the relative fertility of black southern women declined markedly, exhibited rapid improvements in test scores and adult outcomes.

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