Sara Lowes, Nathan Nunn, James Robinson, Jonathan Weigel, 18 February 2015

Ethnic identity can fracture nations – it is a leading explanation of the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. This column presents evidence from a psychological test that reveals how members of different ethnic groups from the Democratic Republic of the Congo form their respective ethnic identities. This Implicit Association Test reveals that people have a small, statistically significant bias towards own-group. The magnitude suggests that biases are consciously held, rather than being a conditioned response.

Klaus F. Zimmermann, 08 August 2008

The ‘ethnosizer’ is a new measure of the intensity of a person's ethnic identity, using information on language, culture, social interaction, history of migration and ethnic self-identification. Klaus Zimmermann, who has developed the measure, talks to Romesh Vaitilingam about its explanatory power for the economic outcomes of migrants in Germany.

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