Mathias Reynaert, 26 July 2020

In 2009, the EU adopted one of the world’s most demanding emission standards for its automobile market, requiring automakers to reduce emissions by 18%. This column discusses the different strategies firms can adopt to comply with these requirements and analyses their respective welfare effects. Using data from the Netherlands, it finds a growing divergence between on-road fuel consumption and laboratory results since the new policy, suggesting strategic ‘gaming’ by automakers. The political environment, the enforcement of the policy, and strategic decisions by firms are crucial to evaluating the welfare consequences of the emission standard. 

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