Emine Boz, Gita Gopinath, Mikkel Plagborg-Moller, 11 February 2018

In international macroeconomics, it is typically assumed that the exchange rate between two trading partners matters most for trade prices, quantities, and terms of trade. This column presents evidence supporting an alternate view – that a country’s exchange rate relative to the US dollar is most important. This is because invoicing in dollars is common, even when the US is not part of a transaction. The findings have important implications for the conduct of monetary and exchange rate policies.

Pinelopi Goldberg, Nina Pavcnik, 20 June 2017

Alan de Bromhead, Alan Fernihough, Markus Lampe, Kevin O'Rourke, 24 March 2017

With Brexit looming, and protectionist pressures mounting elsewhere in the developed world, the question of whether trade policy matters is taking on more significance. This column looks at the extent to which trade policy was responsible for the shift towards intra-imperial trade in the interwar period. Both tariffs and quotas increased the Empire’s share of British trade, suggesting that trade policy mattered more for interwar trade patterns than the cliometric literature has suggested.

Richard Pomfret, Patricia Sourdin, 23 September 2016

Joining a customs union is supposed to reduce trade with third countries. But after 2004, the largest EU accession countries actually increased their trade with Australia, especially their exports. This column argues that new regional value chains made accession country industries more competitive, especially in the auto industry. Trade with Australia has also been facilitated by a drop in the costs of bilateral international trade.

Friederike Niepmann, Tim Schmidt-Eisenlohr, 11 June 2016

To mitigate the risks of international trade for firms, banks offer trade finance products – specifically, letters of credit and documentary collections. This column exploits new data from the SWIFT Institute to establish key facts on the use of these instruments in world trade. Letters of credit (documentary collections) cover 12.5% (1.7%) of world trade, or $2.3 trillion ($310 billion). 

Emilie Anér, Anna Graneli, Magnus Lodefalk, 14 October 2015

A large body of research has established a positive link between immigrants and bilateral trade. However, the temporary movement of people across borders has received less attention. This column uses Swedish data to analyse the impact of temporary cross-border movement on trade. Recently arrived migrants are found to reduce the negative impact of distance on foreign trade, by assisting firms to overcome informal and informational barriers to trade with their origin country. Facilitating movement of people across borders can be a highly useful tool for engaging in and benefitting from specialised and internationalised production networks.

Maria Bas, Vanessa Strauss-Kahn, 14 July 2014

The rise of trade in intermediate inputs is well documented, but its role in shaping domestic economies is not yet completely understood. This column presents evidence from French firms on the effects of importing intermediate inputs. Firms importing more varieties of intermediate inputs increased their productivity and exported more varieties. Foreign inputs from the most advanced economies have the strongest effect on firm productivity, but imported inputs from all countries help raise the number of export varieties.

Mary Amiti, Oleg Itskhoki, Jozef Konings, 19 February 2013

Why is it that large movements in exchange rates have small effects on international prices? What does this mean for a crisis-stricken Eurozone? Using firm-level data, this column presents new research that investigates this exchange rate ‘disconnect’. Evidence suggests that the prices of the largest firms – with their disproportionately large share of trade – are insulated from exchange rate movements. The international competitiveness effects of a euro devaluation are therefore likely to be modest, given major exporters’ reliance on global supply chains.

Andreas Moxnes, Karen-Helene Ulltveit-Moe, Esther Ann Bøler, 18 July 2012

With trade barriers rising, the time is right to refresh the evidence that openness to trade comes with substantial benefits. This column focuses on the complementarity between R&D and foreign sourcing. Looking at Norwegian firms from 1997 to 2005, it argues that one fifth of productivity growth came from sourcing more foreign products, while the remaining four fifths came from technical change.

Yasuyuki Todo, 07 June 2012

How do firms go international? This column reviews evidence from industrialised and emerging economies, including Japan and China, with some surprising findings.

Pinelopi Goldberg, Amit Khandelwal, Nina Pavcnik, 01 December 2008

One quarter of India’s manufacturing output growth during the 1990s stemmed from products that were not manufactured prior to the reforms. This column shows that this expansion of new products was driven in large part by access of Indian firms to previously unavailable imported inputs. Access to new imported intermediates therefore played an important role in the overall growth of the Indian economy.