Aline Bütikofer, Sissel Jensen, Kjell G. Salvanes, 29 November 2018

A recent literature argues that a ‘motherhood penalty’ is a main contributor to the persistent gender wage gap in the upper part of the earnings distribution. Using Norwegian registry data, this column studies the effect of parenthood on the careers of high-achieving women relative to high-achieving men in a set of high-earning professions. It finds that the child earnings penalty is substantially larger for mothers with an MBA or law degree than for mothers with a STEM or medical degree.

Henrik Kleven, Camille Landais, Jakob Egholt Søgaard, 12 July 2018

Despite considerable convergence over time, substantial gender inequality persists in all countries. Using Danish data, this column argues that this gap persists because the effects of having children on the careers of women relative to men are large and have not fallen over time. Additional findings suggest this effect may be related to inherited gender identity norms.

Alison Booth, 11 May 2018

Recent research has suggested that an element of the gender wage gap can be explained by differences between men and women in their competitiveness and risk-taking. Using evidence from post-Cultural Revolution Beijing and Taipei, Alison Booth discusses her work on the extent to which these differences can be explained by the culture in which people grow up. This video was recorded at the 2018 RES annual conference.

Yukiko Abe, Beata Javorcik, Naomi Kodama, 27 March 2016

Gender inequality is greater in Japan than in other developed countries, and in response the country has implemented steps towards improving female employment. This column presents new evidence suggesting that foreign companies are an unexpected ally in promoting female labour market participation. Foreign direct investment has the potential to improve the allocation of talent and contribute to faster economic growth.

Esther Ann Bøler, Beata Javorcik, Karen-Helene Ulltveit-Moe, 18 May 2015

The gender wage gap persists even in gender equal societies such as the Nordic countries. This column suggests that globalisation may play a role in that. The authors show that exporting firms have higher gender wage gaps although the effect is only present among college graduates. The heightened competition faced by exporters requires greater commitment and flexibility on the part of the workers, which leads to statistical gender discrimination.

Shelly Lundberg, Robert Pollak, 29 October 2013

Marriage patterns have changed in the last 50 years as fertility rates declined and cohabitation became more widespread. These trends can be explained by a shift in the gains from marriage away from specialisation and towards investment in children. This column argues that different patterns in childrearing are key to understanding class differences in marriage and parenthood. Heterogeneity in preferences for – or ability to invest in – child human capital explain marriage and fertility patterns across socioeconomic groups.

Sandra Black, Alexandra Spitz-Oener, 01 September 2007

Data on Germany suggest that important differences in the evolution of skill requirements at work by gender explain a substantial fraction of the closing of the gender wage gap. Policies promoting female employment should respond to these changing skill requirements.

Manuel Bagues, Berta Esteve-Volart, 27 July 2007

Many nations are imposing gender quotas on top-level jobs. Recent research suggests that such policies do not have a positive knock-on effect on gender balance in lower positions.

Stefania Albanesi, Claudia Olivetti, 20 July 2007

Medical advances in the early part of the twentieth century, especially those concerning child-bearing, increased the fraction of women’s lives that could be devoted to the labour market. They account for the threefold increase in the labour force participation of married women with children between 1920 and 1970 in the US.

Doris Weichselbaumer, Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, Martina Zweimüller, 16 July 2007

There has been much debate centred around gender wage differentials and discrimination and one of the key questions to emerge whether competitive markets can bring an end to the unequal market outcomes for men and women or if some form of anti-discrimination law is necessary.

Daniele Paserman, 26 June 2007

Female tennis players play more conservatively and commit more unforced errors when playing critical points. Does this explain the upper-echelons wage gap?

Juan Dolado, 12 June 2007

Gender equality policies seek to shift market outcomes. Economic logic and empirical research suggest that such policies can help if they are applied consistently for a long period.

Events

  • 17 - 18 August 2019 / Peking University, Beijing / Chinese University of Hong Kong – Tsinghua University Joint Research Center for Chinese Economy, the Institute for Emerging Market Studies at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, the Guanghua School of Management at Peking University, the Stanford Center on Global Poverty and Development at Stanford University, the School of Economics and Management at Tsinghua University, BREAD, NBER and CEPR
  • 19 - 20 August 2019 / Vienna, Palais Coburg / WU Research Institute for Capital Markets (ISK)
  • 29 - 30 August 2019 / Galatina, Italy /
  • 4 - 5 September 2019 / Roma Eventi, Congress Center, Pontificia Università Gregoriana Piazza della Pilotta, 4, Rome, Italy / European Center of Sustainable Development , CIT University
  • 9 - 14 September 2019 / Guildford, Surrey, UK / The University of Surrey

CEPR Policy Research