Ilyana Kuziemko, Jessica Pan, Jenny Shen, Ebonya Washington, 22 September 2018

Despite women having surpassed men in earning college degrees, having children later than ever, and accumulating increasing amounts of on-the-job experience, convergence in labour force participation between men and women has stalled. This column argues that one reason for this is women failing to anticipate the effect that children will have on their careers. The findings also suggest that the employment costs of motherhood have risen unexpectedly, and especially so for educated mothers.

Jane Herr, 31 March 2009

Highly educated women tend to opt out of the labour force at motherhood. This column explores why some professions (doctors) opt out less than others (MBAs). One crucial finding is that women who worked in a family-friendly environment are 10% more likely to remain working, suggesting a role for improved work-family policies.

Stefania Albanesi, Claudia Olivetti, 20 July 2007

Medical advances in the early part of the twentieth century, especially those concerning child-bearing, increased the fraction of women’s lives that could be devoted to the labour market. They account for the threefold increase in the labour force participation of married women with children between 1920 and 1970 in the US.

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