Jaime de Melo, Alessandro Nicita, 04 May 2019

Developing countries often struggle to access international markets. One reason is that trade regulatory frameworks are becoming more complex, and that contemporary economic integration strategies need to confront policy measures that are well beyond the scope of traditional trade policy. This column discusses those policy measures and options for integrating them into developing countries' strategies.

Hylke Vandenbussche, William Connell, Wouter Simons, 24 August 2018

While talks of a preferential agreement between the US and EU were put aside when President Trump came in office, the presidents of the two trading partners have recently expressed a new desire to aim for zero tariffs and non-tariff measures between them. This column estimates the gains from such a deal, taking into account global value chains and input-output linkages in production. It finds that free trade would substantially benefit both the EU and the US, and these gains would result from the reduction in non-tariff barriers rather than tariffs. 

Saileshsingh Gunessee, Chris Milner, Zhaohui Niu, 19 June 2018

Trade liberalisation is expected to have ushered in an era of increased globalisation. This column uses a measure of overall trade protection comprising tariff-equivalent non-tariff measures and tariffs to examine whether protectionism has fallen or increased over the past two decades. The results suggest that overall protection levels have not decreased despite tariff liberalisation, as non-tariff measures have proliferated both across sectors and countries. These measures are now the main source of trade protection.

Marc Bacchetta, Cosimo Beverelli, 31 July 2012

The WTO and its predecessor the GATT have been remarkably successful in negotiating down tariffs over the past six decades. But trade is still a long way from free and since the global crisis, it is becoming even less so. This column reviews the facts, economics, and motives behind these new non-tariff barriers and discusses the challenges they pose for the WTO.

Michael Ferrantino, 11 February 2012

As tariffs have declined steadily since the 1940s, government interventions to restrict imports have increasingly taken non-tariff forms. This column argues these add many trade costs along the supply chain and, in a world where production is fragmented across countries, they are associated with development traps. Regional initiatives and a focus on logistics measures can help bring supply chains to new parts of the world.

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