Jens Josephson, Joel Shapiro, 09 April 2019

The poor performance of credit ratings of structured finance products in the financial crisis has prompted investigation into the role of credit rating agencies. This column discusses the incidence of rating inflation when such an agency both designs and rates securities, highlighting the role of demand from investors that face rating constraints, such as banks, pension funds, or insurance companies. It finds that ratings are accurate when these constraints are very tight or very lax, but inflated otherwise.

Robert Shiller, Jonathan D. Ostry, James Benford, Mark Joy, 16 March 2018

While the idea of governments issuing debt instruments whose repayments are indexed to GDP is not new, the current global backdrop of high government debt suggests the case for doing so might be especially strong now. This column introduces a new eBook in which leading economists, lawyers, and investors examine the case for issuing GDP-linked bonds, the obstacles to market development, ways of overcoming them, and what such a security might look like in practice.

Philip Lane, Sam Langfield, 28 February 2018

The euro area’s macro-financial framework is incomplete and fragile. This column highlights how a market for sovereign bond-backed securities could help to enhance financial stability by providing automatic stabilisation. Drawing on a recent feasibility study published by a High-Level Task Force of the European Systemic Risk Board, it outlines how to pave the way for market development by removing regulatory obstacles.

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The objective of this course is to present empirical applications (as well as the research methodologies) of relevant questions for both banking theory and policy, mainly related to Systemic Risk, Crises, Monetary Policy and Risk taking behaviour. An important objective is to understand scientific papers in empirical banking; to accomplish this objective, emphasis is placed on illustrating research methodologies used in empirical banking and learning the application of these methodologies to selected topics, such as:

- Securities and credit registers; large datasets

- Fire sales, runs, market and funding liquidity, systemic risk

- Risk-taking and credit channels of monetary policy

- Moral hazard vs. behavioral based risk-taking

- Secular stagnation, banking and debt crises

- Interbank globalization, contagion, emerging markets, policy

Marco Onado, 19 August 2007

The market participants who profited from creating the faltering debt instruments are not the ones who will pay most of the cost of the crisis; the losses will fall on the shoulders of final investors. Three things need fixing: credit ratings, evaluations of asset marketability, and transparency in the retail market for financial assets.

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