Rabah Arezki, Rachel Yuting Fan, Ha Nguyen, 29 June 2019

The debate on the middle-income trap has largely focused on East Asia and Pacific countries, but the countries of Middle East and North Africa have significantly lower growth, which drops at an earlier level of income. The column argues that one factor is MENA's slow adoption of general purpose technologies. Barriers to the adoption of such technologies in key sectors could be an important transmission channel for the middle-income trap.

Thorvaldur Gylfason, Per Wijkman, 04 November 2012

Today, most of Europe is free from dictatorships and conflict. Yet, these spectres loom in neighbouring states and nearby regions. This column suggests that this year’s Nobel Peace Prize, awarded to the EU, was perhaps a call to action. Can the EU, preoccupied as it is with a growing Eurozone crisis, encourage peace and democracy in its neighbourhood? And what are the lessons we can learn from recent EU policy history?

Céline Carrère, Julien Gourdon, Marcelo Olarreaga, 15 May 2012

Regional integration schemes that include natural-resource-abundant countries have by and large been unsuccessful. Part of the reason is the uneven distribution of gains when resource-poor and resource-rich countries integrate. This column presents new evidence suggesting that the slow progress of regional integration efforts in the Middle East and North Africa can be explained by the reluctance of resource-rich countries to enter into trade agreements that will hurt them.

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