Ghazala Azmat, Caterina Calsamiglia, Nagore Iriberri, 22 January 2016

Not everyone responds to pressure in the same way. This column suggests that girls and boys respond differently to the pressure of exams, depending on the significance of the exams. Girls perform relatively better when the stakes are low, but boys outperform them when the stakes are very high. This has a number of implications for the choices that young men and women make over degree subjects and careers.

Elizabeth Cascio, 06 September 2008

Parents are increasingly delaying their children’s entry into school to give them the advantage of being older than their classmates. But this column says they have it all wrong – children who are relatively older lag in academic achievement.

Derek Neal, Diane Schanzenbach, 28 August 2007

New research suggests that the US incentive system built around test scores almost guarantees that academically disadvantaged children do not benefit and may actually be harmed. Policy-makers should take incentive design issues more seriously or follow the lead of many private sector firms and look for other ways to monitor and motivate teachers.

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