Pamela Campa, Michel Serafinelli, 22 June 2018

Attitudes towards work and gender simultaneously shape, and are shaped by, the conventions, practices, and policies in a given place and time. This column explores how politico-economic regimes affect attitudes towards gender roles and labour, exploiting the rise and fall of the Iron Curtain. Results show that women in state-socialist regimes tended to have less negative and less traditional views of work and labour force participation.

Richard Blundell, Luigi Pistaferri, Itay Saporta Eksten, 18 December 2017

Households can insure their living standards against shocks to wages or employment through the allocation of goods and time. This column presents a model for couples’ decisions on how much to consume or save and how to allocate their available time to three activities – work, leisure, and the care of children – and uses the model to simulate behaviour in response to new policies. The results suggest that the reduction of the mother's childcare time should be an important part of any analysis of the consequences of policies or external shocks that incentivise mothers with young children into work.

Daniel Aaronson, Rajeev Dehejia, Andrew Jordan, Cristian Pop-Eleches , Cyrus Samii, Karl Schulze, 15 September 2017

Women’s fertility and labour supply decisions are made simultaneously, making it difficult to identify the effect of the former on the latter. This column explores the relationship using a dataset spanning 200 years and 103 countries, leveraging twin births to isolate causal effects. The key finding is that as countries develop, women’s labour supply becomes more responsive to additional children. The global decline in fertility over the last century has played a positive role in increasing women’s work in developed countries, but a negligible one in developing countries.

Yuko Kinoshita, Fang Guo, 31 March 2015

Japan and Korea need to encourage female labour market participation to counter acute labour shortages. This column argues that following Nordic countries’ experiences, it would be possible to achieve both high female labour force participation rate and fertility rate. However, this is only possible if supported by appropriate public and private sector policies.

Vincenzo Galasso, Paola Profeta, Chiara Pronzato, Francesco Billari, 16 November 2013

The gender gap in labour-force participation rates is still not closing up. Among other factors, cultural aspects may play a role. This column describes an experimental study, conducted with women from Italy, on the benefits of formal childcare on outcomes of children. Highly educated women are positively affected by the information about formal childcare. Low-educated mothers, however, do not increase their use of childcare facilities, or their labour supply.

Moshe Hazan, Hosny Zoabi, 03 October 2011

What is the relationship between women's education, income, and family size? CEPR DP8590 presents new evidence from the US in support of the 'marketization hypothesis' -- that women's increased labour-force participation allows them to buy market services to raise their families. Highly educated American women substitute much of their own time with nannying and housekeeping services, which enables them to have more children and work longer hours.

Richard Zeckhauser, Karen Eggleston, John Rizzo, Hai Fang, 05 June 2010

Understanding the relationship between female employment and fertility is a vital ingredient for effective population policy. This column presents new findings from China based on well over 2000 women between 20 and 52 years old. It finds that non-agricultural jobs for women reduce the number of children per woman by 0.64 and the probability of having more than one child by 54.8%.

José Tavares , Tiago Cavalcanti, 01 October 2007

The authors of CEPR DP6477 believe that it is important to provide a model-based macroeconomic estimate for the cost of wage discrimination to aggregate output. They find that the costs are indeed quite substantial which should be a certain concern in any macroeconomic policy aimed at increasing output per capita in the long-run.

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