Shari Eli, Trevon Logan, Boriana Miloucheva, 20 August 2019

The mortality gap between blacks and whites in the US has been well documented, but there is still considerable debate over why the gap has remained so large and why it has persisted over the last century. This column explores these questions using unique data on black and white Civil War veterans to measure one of the earliest known incidences of physician bias against African Americans. It shows that physician bias had large effects on income and longevity of blacks relative to whites and considers the ways in which doctor attitudes still contribute to the racial mortality gap today. 

Karen Clay, Peter Juul Egedesø, Casper Worm Hansen, Peter Jensen, Avery Calkins, 13 August 2019

In the early 20th century, the US and Europe experienced striking reductions in tuberculosis and other infectious diseases, even before effective medical treatments were developed. However, evidence is mixed on whether improved public health interventions had any effect. This column analyses the effects of the first public health demonstration on TB mortality, total mortality, and infant mortality. Although generally considered a success, the findings suggest that the Framingham Demonstration in fact had little effect on TB mortality.

Charles Courtemanche, Art Carden, Xilin Zhou, Murugi Ndirangu, 18 July 2019

Food security is a concern even in industrialised countries, with 14.5% of US households lacking food security during at least some of the year 2012. This column examines the impact of Walmart Supercenters’ entry into the local market and finds that it improves food security, especially among low-income households and households with children. It suggests that the unintended consequences of policies aimed at thwarting Walmart’s market entry may reduce food security for the most vulnerable segments of society.

Leandro de la Escosura, 15 June 2019

The concept of human development views wellbeing as being affected by a wide range of factors including health and education. This column examines worldwide long-term wellbeing from 1870-2015 with an augmented historical human development index (AHHDI) that combines new measures of achievements in health, education, material living standards, and political freedom. It shows that world human development has steadily improved over time, although advances have been unevenly distributed across world regions.

Mariacristina De Nardi, 03 May 2019

MariaCristina De Nardi tells Tim Phillips that non-college-educated Americans born in the 1960s are dying younger, earning less, and paying more for healthcare than in their parents' generation.

James J Feigenbaum, Christopher Muller, Elizabeth Wrigley-Field, 18 February 2019

The mortality rate of non-Hispanic white Americans in midlife has been rising since the beginning of the 21st century, in contrast to the national decline in deaths from infectious disease witnessed during the previous century. This column reviews the fall in infectious mortality in US cities across regions and racial groups. It finds that southern cities had the highest rate of death from infectious disease in every year from 1900 to 1948, primarily because southern cities were populated by greater proportions of black residents, who suffered extreme risks from infectious disease in cities in all regions. 

Kristín Helga Birgisdóttir, Arna Hauksdóttir, Christopher J. Ruhm, Tinna Laufey Ásgeirsdóttir, 27 January 2019

Studies on the relationship between business cycles and health have come up with conflicting results. This column uses the case of Iceland’s economic collapse in 2008 to argue that the context and nature of macroeconomic fluctuations are key. Looking at the Icelandic business cycle in general suggests that hard economic times appear to be good for heart health, but the collapse, which was particularly dramatic and sudden, increased the incidence of ischemic heart disease. 

Josephine Duh, Dean Spears, 16 July 2018

Although average wealth in India has risen in recent years, calorie consumption has paradoxically fallen. Josephine Duh and Dean Spears explain that Indians are eating less despite being richer because disease rates are slowly declining, meaning that nutrition from food is extracted more efficiently.

Rachel Griffith, 02 May 2018

The UK recently introduced a 'soda tax' - a tax on the consumption of drinks with added sugar. Rachel Griffith discusses the effectiveness of such measures in reducing the consumption of sugar among children. This video was recorded at the 2018 RES Conference.

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The scope of the event is to give participants the opportunity to present their work in progress to an audience of peers with homogeneous research interests and get valuable feedback to improve their ongoing research.

This year the event will be held in two different venues according to the following schedule:

Corte, Corse May 30th- June 2nd

Urban and regional economics and policy (May 30th-31st)
Economics of risky behavior (June 1st-2nd)

Alghero, Sardinia June 19th-22nd

Political economy (June 19th-20th), keynote speaker: James Fearon, Stanford University
Credit and financial frictions (June 19th-20th), keynote speaker: TBA
Health economics (June 21st-22nd), keynote speaker: Christopher Carpenter, Vanderbilt University
Media economics (June 21st-22nd), keynote speaker: Hal Varian, Google Inc.

The deadline for the application is 15th March 2018.

Brandy Lipton, Kerry Anne McGeary, Dhaval Dave, Timothy Roeper, 11 January 2018

Many regions in the US have enacted 100% smoke-free laws in public places to reduce harmful second-hand smoke exposure, but if these laws simply displace smoking to the home, the children of smokers may suffer. The column uses data on infant and child health since the first ban in 1990 to show that children are healthier in many dimensions when there is a 100% smoke-free law. Partial smoking bans have a much smaller impact.

Ali Palali, Jan van Ours, 30 September 2017

Despite decades-long efforts to deter its consumption, tobacco continues to be one of the world’s biggest health threats. Studies of tobacco control policies show they have had little impact on overall smoking rates. This column assesses the impact of such policies – from bans to advertising controls – on rates of smoking initiation across Europe. Control policies have no significant effect on the age of onset of smoking, and do not seem to discourage young individuals from starting to smoke. To prevent take-up of smoking, policies must address this directly.

Jorge Luis García, James Heckman, Duncan Ermini Leaf, María Prados, 25 August 2017

The costs and benefits of early childcare for working women and their children are hotly debated. This column explores the long-term benefits and costs of a programme in the US providing high-quality childcare services for disadvantaged families. The programme has a two-generation impact, improving mothers’ labour income, work experience, and education, as well as outcomes for the children. The results also suggest that the benefits of high-quality compared to low-quality formal care are higher for boys than for girls. Overall, the benefits more than recoup the costs.

Emilia del Bono, 23 June 2017

What is the impact of mother's mental health on children's development? In this video, Emilia Del Bono discusses how depression might affect a child's non cognitive skills. This video was recorded at the Royal Economic Society Annual Conference held in Bristol in April 2017.

Hilary Hoynes, 26 May 2017

Famines during childhood have significant effects on adults’ lives. In this video, Hilary Hoynes discusses the impact of the Food Stamps programme on metabolic health in adulthood. This video was recorded at the Royal Economic Society Annual Conference held in Bristol in April 2017.

Margaret Kyle, Heidi Williams, 22 May 2017

Despite higher per capita healthcare spending, US health outcomes compare poorly with other developed nations. One potential reason is that the US healthcare system creates incentives that promote the faster adoption of medical technologies with minimal benefits. This column tests this claim using data on the quality and diffusion of new pharmaceuticals in the US and four other countries. The results suggest that compared to Australia, Canada, Switzerland, and the UK, low-quality drugs diffuse more quickly in the US relative to high-quality drugs.

Timothy Hatton, 03 April 2017

There is growing concern about the long-term health effects of atmospheric pollution. Conditions were much worse a century ago in Western countries, when coal-fired industrialisation reached its zenith, than they are now in countries where pollution presents the greatest challenges today. This column highlights the effect of polluted air on adult heights using a sample of British army soldiers in WWI. Pollution accounts for a difference of almost an inch between the average adult heights in least and most polluted localities.

Nicholas W. Papageorge, Gwyn C. Pauley, Mardge Cohen, Tracey E. Wilson, Barton H. Hamilton, Robert Pollak, 01 April 2017

A link has been established between domestic violence and poor labour market outcomes. This column uses US data to explore the relationship between health and both domestic violence and drug use. HIV+ women who benefitted from the introduction of a medical innovation that delayed the onset of immune system decline experienced less domestic violence and reduced their drug use. Ignoring the link between medical innovation, health, and outcomes such as these is likely to lead to underinvestment in research.

Pierre Dubois, Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell, 31 March 2017

There have been calls for restrictions on junk food advertising to tackle rising rates of obesity around the world. This column examines the likely effect of a ban on potato crisp advertising. Results suggest that the total quantity of crisps sold would fall by around 15% in the presence of a ban, or by 10% if firms respond with price cuts. The welfare benefits from this would depend on whether current advertising is persuasive, informative or complementary.

Martina Björkman Nyqvist, Lucia Corno, Damien de Walque, Jakob Svensson, 07 January 2017

Traditional HIV/AIDS education campaigns have not been completely effective in curtailing new infections. One potential reason behind this is that most of the infections occur among individuals who are willing to take risks when it comes to sexual behaviour, and campaigns have failed to specifically target these people. This column describes a new HIV intervention trialled in Lesotho that used a lottery to target such individuals and incentivise safer practices. HIV incidence was reduced by more than a fifth in treatment groups over the trial period. These results, combined with practical and cost advantages, suggest that such interventions could prove invaluable in the fight against HIV.

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