Joshua S. Goodman, Oded Gurantz, Jonathan Smith, 04 November 2018

Retaking college entrance exams can only improve students’ chances of being admitted to a college, yet little is known about students’ decisions to retake them and the impact of retaking. This column uses data on over 10 million SAT takers from the high school classes of 2006-2014 to show that the increases resulting from retaking are large enough to drive substantial improvements in college enrolment outcomes, and that retaking appears to close college enrolment gaps by income and race.

Janet Currie, 15 January 2016

Studies of the effects of economic fluctuations on health have come to wildly different conclusions. This may be because the effects are different for different groups. Using US data, this column looks at the health consequences of the Great Recession on mothers, a sub-population that has thus far been largely neglected in the literature. Increases in unemployment are found to have large negative health effects and to increase incidences of smoking and substance abuse among mothers. These effects appear to be concentrated on disadvantaged groups such as minorities, and point to short- and long-term consequences for their children.

William Kerr, Martin Mandorff, 31 October 2015

Immigrants are more likely to concentrate around specific industries and entrepreneurship. Market integration and discrimination only go a certain way towards explaining this phenomenon. This column explores how social interactions affect immigrants’ employment decisions in the US. Fifteen ethnic groups are found to cluster around certain industries at a rate 10 times greater than the native population. Immigrants are argued to be drawn to the same industries as their countrymen due to the ease of diffusing skills through social interactions in the group, along with higher earnings due to specialisation.

Nitsa Kasir, Eran Yashiv, 24 February 2015

The labour market outcomes of Israeli Arabs, who are mostly Muslim, are negative in terms of participation, employment, and wages. There is a significant gap between their outcomes and those of the majority in Israeli society. CEPR Policy Insight 78 shows that government policy may make a big difference through investment in education, active labour market policies, physical infrastructure, tax and benefits reform, and anti-discrimination legislation and enforcement. The estimated rate of return on these policies is relatively high. And the lessons to be learned could be applied to other Muslim minorities. 

Nitsa Kasir, Eran Yashiv, 25 February 2015

The labour market outcomes of Israeli Arabs, who are mostly Muslim, are negative in terms of participation, employment, and wages. There is a significant gap between their outcomes and those of the majority in Israeli society. This column introduces CEPR Policy Insight 78, which shows that government policy may make a big difference through investment in education, active labour market policies, physical infrastructure, tax and benefits reform, and anti-discrimination legislation and enforcement. The estimated rate of return on these policies is relatively high. And the lessons to be learned could be applied to other Muslim minorities. 

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