Jonathan Gruber, Thomas Hoe, George Stoye, 04 August 2018

Emergency departments in hospitals around the world are under pressure to reduce waiting times. This column analyses the effect of a government target for hospitals in England which mandates a maximum waiting time of four hours. The target successfully reduced waiting times and mortality, but increased costs per patient.

Li Liu, Ben Lockwood, 09 July 2015

Most countries have a threshold below which businesses do not need to register for value added tax (VAT). This column looks at the costs and efficiency of VAT by analysing behavioural responses of firms to the registration threshold. Voluntary registration appears more likely when the cost of inputs is high or when the proportion of business-to-consumer sales is low. There is bunching around the threshold, and this is more likely when the cost of inputs relative to sales is low or the proportion of business-to-consumer sales is high.

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