Thilo Huning, Nikolaus Wolf, 12 April 2019

State borders can change due to both political and economic disputes. This column shows how the formation of the German state can be traced back to British political intervention at the end of the Napoleonic War. In preventing Russia from gaining territory westwards, Britain set in motion a series of events that gave Prussia strategic trade advantages. This led to the formation of Europe's first customs union (the Zollverein) and prepared the political unification of Germany.

Simon Wren-Lewis, 16 January 2019

, 06 September 2017

Will the UK remain in the EU's customs union? This video explains the implications of remaining in the customs union, and how it would affect trade. This video was recorded at the UK Trade Policy Observatory at the University of Sussex (UKTPO) in August 2017.

Richard Pomfret, Patricia Sourdin, 23 September 2016

Joining a customs union is supposed to reduce trade with third countries. But after 2004, the largest EU accession countries actually increased their trade with Australia, especially their exports. This column argues that new regional value chains made accession country industries more competitive, especially in the auto industry. Trade with Australia has also been facilitated by a drop in the costs of bilateral international trade.

Chad Bown, Patricia Tovar, 17 September 2016

Argentina and Brazil began to open their markets to the world significantly – but only partially – in the 1990s. Yet these countries’ efforts to liberalise beyond their Latin American trading partners have stalled since 1995. This column re-examines the 1990s MERCOSUR experience and raises questions over just how much trade policy cooperation these two countries have undertaken. This lack of coordination also has implications for the ‘building blocks’ versus ‘stumbling blocks’ debate in trade policy.

Gabriel Felbermayr, Rahel Aichele, Erdal Yalcin, 23 July 2016

New EU trade agreements could adversely affect Turkey as a non-EU member. This column presents new findings of an economic analysis in which different trade policy scenarios are considered. The results point to a clear policy recommendation – Turkey and the EU should mutually deepen their customs union by including the agriculture and service sectors as soon as possible.

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