Adam Brzezinski, Yao Chen, Nuno Palma, Felix Ward, 14 November 2019

During the early 16th to 19th centuries, Spain received large amounts of monetary silver from its colonies in America. Vagaries of the sea thus affected Spain’s money supply. This column investigates the effects of money supply shocks on the economy using the case of maritime disasters in the Spanish Empire. It finds that a one-percentage-point reduction in the money growth rate caused a 1.3% drop in real output that persisted for several years. Analysing monetary transmission channels, it shows that price rigidities and credit frictions account for most of this non-neutrality result.

Almut Balleer, Nikolay Hristov, Dominik Menno, 24 June 2017

Research into the aggregate effects of financial frictions in the economy generally assume that they do not affect whether (and which) firms adjust prices, something this column argues that should be taken into account. In particular, financial frictions change the composition of firms that reset prices and cause the degree of nominal price rigidity to vary over the business cycle, which has important consequences for how inflation and output respond to aggregate shocks.

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