Mathieu Cros, Anne Epaulard, Philippe Martin, 04 March 2021

Concerns have emerged that public support to firms in the COVID-19 crisis has been too generous, reducing exit of unproductive firms and preventing Schumpeterian destructive creation. Using data on French firm failures in 2020, this column suggests that these concerns are, at this stage, unwarranted. Although the number of firms filing for bankruptcy was well below its normal level, the same factors that predicted firm failures in 2019 – primarily low productivity and debt – were at work in a similar way in 2020. Overall, the findings point to hibernation rather than zombification.

Rabah Arezki, Grégoire Rota-Graziosi, 03 February 2021

Rabah Arezki, Rachel Yuting Fan, Ha Nguyen, 29 June 2019

The debate on the middle-income trap has largely focused on East Asia and Pacific countries, but the countries of Middle East and North Africa have significantly lower growth, which drops at an earlier level of income. The column argues that one factor is MENA's slow adoption of general purpose technologies. Barriers to the adoption of such technologies in key sectors could be an important transmission channel for the middle-income trap.

Christian Keuschnigg, Michael Kogler, 04 March 2019

Only strong banks can fulfil their Schumpeterian role by efficiently reallocating credit. The column argues that high capital standards, efficient bankruptcy laws, and a lower cost of bank equity improve credit reallocation and thereby support the productive specialisation of the economy. An efficient banking sector also magnifies the gains from trade liberalisation by easing the process of capital reallocation.

Leonardo Iacovone, Mariana Pereira-López, Marc Schiffbauer, 30 October 2017

In spite of its potential, the use of digital technology is still basic in most developing countries. This column presents evidence that firms in Mexico facing higher external competition have used IT more intensively and efficiently. External competition has encouraged them to make the necessary complementary investments in innovation and organisational changes.

CEPR Policy Research