Hanna Armelius, Carl Andreas Claussen, André Reslow, 12 September 2020

While the ratio of physical cash to GDP has increased in most countries over the last years, it has fallen dramatically in Sweden. This column argues that rather than being ahead of the curve, a unique combination of events and policy measures have led to the falling cash demand in Sweden. Among those are measures to reduce tax evasion and the informal sector, an aggressive notes changeover, the introduction of an electronic payment app, the withdrawal of central bank subsidies to cash distribution, and a track record of protecting commercial bank money during crises.

Jonathan Ashworth, Charles Goodhart, 17 July 2020

Despite regular reports in the media over the past decade on the imminent death of cash amid rapid innovation in payment technologies, cash in circulation has actually been growing strongly in many countries. Perhaps unsurprisingly given coronavirus-related health concerns, there have recently been renewed calls to abandon cash and some observers have argued the virus will accelerate its demise. This column argues that the data so far indicate that currency in circulation has actually surged in a number of countries. While the economic shutdowns and increased use of online retailing have recently been diminishing cash’s traditional function as a medium of exchange, it seems that this has been more than offset by panic-driven hoarding of banknotes.

Clemens Jobst, Helmut Stix, 29 November 2017

Many societies in the developed world have been shifting away from cash towards electronic alternatives. Despite this, there has been a remarkable increase in currency holdings over the past decade. This column looks at the evolution of cash holdings over time to shed light on this apparent contradiction. While circulating currency over GDP has been declining since WWII, there have been sizable increases in recent decades which are only partially explained by low interest rates.

Events

CEPR Policy Research