Kritee Gujral, 10 June 2020

A quarter of all rural US hospitals, most of which are highly essential to their communities, are at high risk of closing.Hospital closures may increase transport time and delay treatment. This column examines hospital closures in California from 1995 to 2011 to assess the effects of rural and urban hospital closures on inpatient mortality. Mortality increases after a rural hospital closure not only in the local rural area but in the neighbouring urban areas as well. This adverse effect is larger for Medicaid patients and racial minorities.

Katharina Janke, David Johnston, Carol Propper, Michael A Shields, 08 March 2020

A robust finding in the social sciences is the strong positive correlation between education and health status at all age, but evidence on causality in this relationship has been mixed. This column exploits two education reforms in the UK to study the causal link between education and a large set of prevalent chronic health conditions. While the results indicate, as expected, a clear and statistically significant negative association between years of education and chronic ill health, the strength of association weakens considerably – with the exception of diabetes – once causal identification techniques are applied.

Benjamin W. Cowan, Nathan Tefft, 23 February 2020

Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in expanding access to college education in the US. This column examines how changes in college access in the US at the end of the 20th century affected schooling and health-related behaviours and outcomes. Increased access to two-year college, in particular, has had a positive impact on health-related behaviours such as smoking or exercising for some sub-populations. There is also some evidence that more years of schooling improved health outcomes, although more research is needed to understand the longer-term effects.

Olivier Sterck, Max Roser, Mthuli Ncube, Stefan Thewissen, 16 February 2018

Large multilateral organisations like WHO and the UN rely heavily on average income data in determining eligibility for, and the allocation of, development assistance for health. This column tests this paradigm by analysing the determinants of health outcomes for 99 countries. A country’s epidemiological surroundings, poverty gap, and institutional capacity appear to be much better predictors of health outcomes than gross national income. These findings suggest alternative metrics that could be leveraged in allocating development assistance for health.

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