Vincent Labhard, Peter McAdam, Filippos Petroulakis, Lara Vivian, 27 August 2019

The fourth industrial revolution is bringing about numerous challenges and opportunities. This column summarises selected takeaways from a recent ECB conference which brought together leading minds from academia, institutions and the private sector on the expected effects of digitalisation on the economy, including labour markets, productivity, investment and inflation, and possible implications for monetary policy.

Molly Lesher, Jan Tscheke, 25 July 2019

E-commerce facilitates trade across borders, increases convenience for consumers, and enables firms to reach new markets. This column identifies a range of digital technologies and the new business models they enable that are driving dynamism in e-commerce markets. Despite this dynamism, however, important gaps remain with regard to e-commerce participation among firms and different groups of individuals. Targeted polices are needed to provide the regulatory flexibility for new business models to thrive and to ensure that e-commerce becomes more inclusive.

Markus K Brunnermeier, Harold James, Jean-Pierre Landau, 03 July 2019

Thanks to digitalisation, we now can hold money on our mobile phones and transfer wealth in real time to almost every corner of the world. Currencies can be swapped within milliseconds on smart phones and people can hold many currencies simultaneously in digital wallets. This column considers how digitalisation will affect the international monetary system, arguing that a new kind of currency area will emerge, held together by digital interconnectedness. These digital currency areas will cut across borders, increase currency competition and, in the process, may redefine the international monetary system.

Ramy El-Dardiry, Bastiaan Overvest, Michiel Bijlsma, 24 May 2019

Digitalisation is transforming human life – from the way we interact with each other to the way we work, relax, and create. R&D within companies is no exception. This column lays out pathways for policymakers to successfully adapt R&D policies to these changes based on three guiding principles: direct policies towards spillovers, make policies technology-neutral, and do not favour superstars over challengers.

Diane Coyle, 29 April 2019

Debora Revoltella, 22 January 2019

Europe is at risk of falling behind its global competitors. In a period of radical technological transformation, European firms are investing too little, with a gap both in tangible and intangible investment compared to the US. This column calls for a ‘retooling’ of Europe’s economy in relation to skills, innovation finance, the business environment, infrastructure, and deepening the Single Market.

Peter Bofinger, 12 June 2018

The digitalisation of money has the potential to change traditional structures of the financial system. This column discusses four areas in which it may have an impact, and argues that while digitalisation will not erode the importance of central banks, banks could be massively challenged by new forms of intermediation. 

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