Nobuaki Hamaguchi, Keisuke Kondo, 10 April 2019

Computerisation and robotics have had a profound effect on labour markets. Using data from Japan, this column finds that female workers are more exposed to risks of computerisation than male workers, and that this tendency is more pronounced in larger cities. The results suggest that supporting additional human capital investment alone is not enough as a risk alleviation strategy against new technology. Policymakers need to address structural labour market issues, such as gender biases in career progression and participation in decision-making positions.

Haichao Fan, Yu Liu, Nancy Qian, Jaya Wen, 29 July 2018

Enforcement of VAT requires accurate records of firm transactions that can be traced to both parties. This column describes how the Chinese government’s digitisation of the country’s VAT process increased enforcement, which in turn increased overall tax revenues in the short run. However, the increased enforcement caused firms to contract in the medium run, reducing the long-run gains in tax revenues.

Sangmin Aum, Tim Lee, Yongseok Shin, 04 July 2018

The past three decades have seen unprecedented technological development, with major impacts on labour markets and the economy as a whole. This column investigates how automation and the increased use of computers has affected productivity trends over the last three decades. Results suggest that automation has had a strong effect on slowing down aggregate productivity, despite raising it at the micro level. This is due to the reallocation of factor inputs across occupations and industries. 

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